Microscopic view of Shigella sonnei (Public Domain)


How it interacts with human body cells
Shigella sonnei
exhibits a parasitic relationship with its human host. This bacterial infection is characterized by the invasion of intestinal mucosa. This infection stays in colon and rectal mucosa of a human where How Shigella sonnei enters the cell (Public Domain)the bacteria cause inflammatory destruction of the mucosal wall. It only takes a minimum of ten bacteria to cause this clinical infection called shigellosis.
Shigella sonnei along with all other types of Shigella,  cause inflammatory response to the enteric cell wall and cell death to the colonic epithelium. After the cell death in the colonic epithelium, the cells release all their intra-cellular content. The human immune system then tries to clean up the mess but this causes an enteric inflammatory response that contributes to the shigellosis infection.
Once Shigella sonnei enters the colonic cells wall, the bacteria can spread to other cells in the intestinal tract. Once this bacterial infection is inside the intestinal tract, Shigella enters into the epithelial cell’s cytoplasm where more new cells are made and then these cells move to invade other cells. When the Shigella cells multiple in the epithelial cell, they cause mucosal ulceration, inflammation, and bleeding. The most common symptoms of Shigella sonnei is bloody stool and small to severe diarrhea. The other occasional symptoms of some people are the constant feeling of having to eHow Shigella sonnei is transmitted (Made myself)mpty the bowel, pain, cramping, fever, nausea, and vomiting. In some young children, seizures may also occur.

There is a bacteriophage or formally called phage, that inhibits Shigella sonnei. A phage or bacteriophage is a virus that infects and then replicates inside bacteria. The phage that infects Shigella sonnei is EP23. This phage also infects E. coli.
Other Organisms that live in intestine
Other organisms that live in the intestinal tract of humans are yeasts such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. There are also hundreds of types of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium difficile  Also, there are many other parasitic organisms that live in the intestinal tract such as amoebas, Giardia lamblia, tapeworms, and Trichina worms.

How it enters the body
Shigella sonnei can enter the body from many different ways. First, it can be transferred from water borne infection that a person comes in contact with and gets ingested into their system. Another way this bacterial infection enters the human body is through fecal-oral contact where someone who is infected comes in contact with meat or any type of food and it is transmitted to the people whoChildren having fun in the water (Public Domain) consume it. Yet another way is just the interaction between people or objects that the infected person has touched if that person was not being sanitary. It all comes down to the fecal-oral contact that transmits Shigella sonnei but there are numerous ways this can happen without even being aware. The diagram above shows the different ways that a person can come in contact with the bacterial infection.

Chemical Structure
Chemical Structure of Shigella sonnei (Permission granted)The diagram to the right is the chemical structure of Shigella sonnei. This structure is bonded with all nitrogen and oxygen which require both single and double bonds. Shigella sonnei uses the Gram-negative pathogen's Type III secretion system as a mechanism of invasion. The Type III secretion system is where a needle-like structure is used to find eukaryotic organisms and disperse proteins to help the bacteria infect the host. The proteins are secreted from the Shigella sonnei cell directly into a eukaryotic cell. These proteins are called Invasion Plasmid Antigen proteins.

Now that you know the ways this bacterial infection interacts with your body, it is time to check out the facts of Shigella! GO!

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