Hannah Mello-Bio 210


Zoogenetes harpa is ovoviviparous. This means that the eggs are held within the mother until they are ready to emerge (Hickman et al. 2009).This allows for a level of protection from environmental damage and predation. There are no larval stages like in snails that occupy an aquatic habitat and no parasitic stage like those who go through a glochidia stage. This could be due to the habitat of the species. Ovoviviparity is beneficial in habitats where the amount of rainfall and other environmental conditions is often in question (Heller et al. 1997). As someone who resides in the cold, unforgiving northcountry where this snail resides, I can tell you that environmental conditions are always changing and uncertain.