Animal Diversity Web 2001. <URL:>. Accessed 18 April 2013

Attygalle, Athula B. and Morgan, David E. 1984. Chemicals from the glands of ants.  Department of Chemistry, University of Keele, Staffordshire.

Billen, J. and Gobin, B. 1995. Trail following in army ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae). 46, 272-280 Netherlands Journal of Zoology. BRILL.

Encyclopedia of Life 2003. <ERL:>. Accessed 15 April 2013.

Gotwald, William H. 1995. Army ants : the biology of social predation. William H. Gotwald, Jr. Ithaca Comstock Pub. Associates

Myrmecos 2011. <URL:>. Accessed 16 April 2013

Schneirla, T. C. 1971. Army ants; a study in social organization. San Francisco, W. H. Freeman.

Willis, E. O. and Oniki, Y. 1978. Birds and army ants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9, 243-263

Back to Home
Continue on to