The Aquilegia Vulgaris is a flowering plant that grows to about 1 m ( 3 ft 3 in)  tall. The plant has thin stems that branch off. The plant is considered herbaceous perennial so the plant lasts for more than two years. Gardeners do not have to replant this in their gardens because it will grow back once winter has passed. The plant is found in Europe so the flower is very hardy and can survive cold weather. Columbine can withstand up too -25 degrees Celsius.

Since Aquilegia Vulgaris is apart of the Angiosperms it produces flowers and seeds. The seeds have developed into small packages that are able to make life when conditions are favorable. Once a seed is in a suitable environment the seed begins to grow using the energy stored in the endosperm. The Columbine produces an abundant amount of seeds and quickly spreads. See more in the Reproduction page
                                                                      ©Orjen, Wikicommons
The Aquilegia Vulgaris has specialized cells in the leaves that          
 control gas exchange in the cell. The hole that facilitates gas exchange for the leaf is called a stoma and the stoma is surrounded by two guard cells. The guard cells open and close the stomata to control water loss. At night for example when the plant cannot          
© PdPhoto, wikimediacommons perform photosynthesis the guard cells close to prevent water loss overnight. The image to the left is a picture of two stomata, the top is open for gas exchange and the bottom is closed.

Columbine is known to be toxic and contains chemicals that deter animals from eating it. The chemicals have been known to cause symptoms of poisoning. To find out more about the toxins go to the interactions page.

Water and Nutrients
Since Columbine has a complex root system that absorbs water from the environment it has over time developed a symbiotic relationship with fungi to more effectively absorb nutrients.                                                            The organism that helps is apart of   the Glomeromycota and forms                                                                                                             ©kuripop, wikimedia commons
endomycorrhizae which helps obtain nutrients. Specifically the fungi grows into the plant cells and forms arbuscules which are heavily branched and increase surface area for absorption. The fungi exchanges important nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in exchange for glucose that the plant produces through photosynthesis.
©David Midgley, Wikimedia commons

To learn more about nutrition click here