As an angiosperm the Aquilegia Vulgaris produces flowers and fruit.
 Both interact with the environment. The main symposia with the ©Abhialeen                 environment arewith various animals and is classified as mutualism. They are the mode of transportation for the pollen to spread and fertilize other flowers. The main animals that are utilized by Columbine are bees, humming birds, and butterflies. The nectar in the plants are located at the bottom of the long spur. This nectar is only accessible to organisms with long proboscises.
The toxic chemicals found on this plant interact with the environment in a negative affect. The chemicals deter animals from preying on the plant as a food source because it causes ill side affects. Animals that are commonly deterred are insects such as black carpenter ants, rabbits, and deer. They do however attract hummingbirds and Aquilegia Vulgaris makes a lovely addition to a garden designed to attract humming birds.

As a plant with a root system Aquilegia Vulgaris has a mutualistic relationship with mycorrhiza. Mycorrhiza are fungi that fuse into plant cells and assist in obtaining nutrients and water for the plants. The fungus increases the surface area of the roots allowing it to access more resources in the soil. The fungi helps the plant obtain important nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen while the fungi receives products of photosynthesis in return. Read more about mycorrhiza in the adaption page.



The plant Aquilegia Vulgaris and other species of the plant were actually used by Native Americans in cooking, but always in small amounts and never using the roots or the seeds. Aquilegia Vulgaris is considered poisonous when eaten in large amounts and has been known to cause heart palipations and gastroenteritis (inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract). This is caused by the cardiogenic toxins. The toxins are various flavenoids but the main chemical that makes columbine toxic is isocytisoside. There are also some alkaloids which are known as well for their toxic properties.
Though the plant contains toxins, there have not been any instances of mammal death due to the ingestion of Aquilegia Vulgaris. Many cultures have actually used the plant as a remedy for many different things ranging from lice to protection of the liver.

Read more in Facts